107-mm Mountain-pack Mortar Model 1938,The Ussr

  • Years of issue – 1939 – 1945
  • In total, 2341 units were produced.
  • Caliber – 107 mm
  • Weight in firing position – 170 kg
  • Barrel length – 1670 mm
  • Calculation – 5 people
  • Travel speed – up to 35 km / h (on a wheeled carriage)
  • Rate of fire – up to 16 rds / min
  • The greatest firing range – 6100 m
  • Direct shot range – 800 m
  • Shooting angles:
  • Horizontal + 3 °
  • Vertical + 45 ° + 80 °

After successfully carried out in 1937, the modernization of the 82-mm battalion mortar model 1936 SKB-4 at the plant number 7 “Arsenal” them. Frunze was instructed to create a new 107-mm mountain-pack regimental mortar. It was intended to arm mountain rifle divisions, the formation of which in the pre-war years in the Soviet Union proceeded at an accelerated pace. These units were supposed to conduct combat operations in mountains and rugged terrain, which imposed additional requirements on their equipment and weapons. Along with B.I.Shavyrin, the designers A.P. Tyutyunik, A.V. Pronin, V.N. Shamarin, who used many original solutions in the elements of the mortar, which increased its combat and operational properties. So the stamped-welded base plate of the arched structure was designed by V.N. Shamarin. The first prototype of the 107-mm mortar was ready in mid-1938, and its field tests took place in the fall of the same year. After eliminating the identified shortcomings, repeated tests were carried out in June 1939. However, long before their start, on February 26, 1939, the mortar had already been adopted by the Red Army under the designation “107-mm mountain-pack regimental mortar, model 1938”. In the same year, its serial production was mastered.

The 107-mm mountain-pack regimental mortar of the 1938 model (GVMP), which was a highly maneuverable, powerful weapon to support and escort mountain rifle and cavalry units, was a smooth-bore mortar of a rigid system with an imaginary triangle scheme. It consisted of: a barrel, a two-legged gun carriage, a base plate and sights. The mortar barrel consisted of a pipe and a screw-on breech.

In addition to firing a samonakol shot from the impact of the primer of the mortar mine on the striker (when the mine was lowered into the barrel bore at the time of loading), the 107-mm mortar had a firing mechanism that allowed firing from cover with a trigger cord. To obtain elevation angles of 45 ° – 65 °, it was necessary to place the swivel clip on the front annular groove of the barrel tube, and for angles above 65 °, it was necessary to rearrange the swivel clip to the rear annular groove of the barrel tube. The swivel consisted of a body, a shock absorber with a clip and a swivel mechanism.The biped was connected to the mortar barrel by a clip with a spring shock absorber. The base plate was a round, stamped, all-welded arched structure. Its top sheet was made by deep stamping and rested on stiffeners welded to it.

The mortar was equipped with mechanical sights: MP-82US, MPM-44, MPM-44M or MP-44, and, in addition, during the war, mortars could be equipped with collimator sights MP-41 or MP-42. In the stowed position, the mortar was transported in the back of a truck, horse-drawn on a wheel drive and in 9 packs. To move in a combat situation in mountainous terrain, a wheel drive with a front end was used, which provided good mobility on flat and rugged terrain. The wheel drive consisted of a frame, two wheels with gusmatic tires and a box for spare parts. High-explosive fragmentation mines weighing 8 kg had a main and four additional charges, which, in combination with a change in the elevation angle from 45 to 80 degrees, made it possible to adjust the firing range from 800 to 6100 m.

Although the 107-mm mortar was officially considered a regimental mortar, it never entered service with mountain rifle regiments. According to the pre-war states, a company of 82-mm battalion mortars (12 units) was included in the mountain rifle regiment, and 107-mm mortars entered service with the mountain-pack artillery regiment of the mountain rifle division (one battery of 6 mortars). Mountain rifle brigades at the beginning of World War II had one mountain-pack mortar division of three batteries (4 107-mm mortars in each battery).

By June 22, 1941, the Red Army had 1468 mountain-pack mortars in service. In 1942, the 4th mountain-pack mortar regiment (107-mm mountain-pack mortars) was formed, intended for the Transcaucasian
(3 regiments) and Trans-Baikal fronts. In accordance with the state of January 3, 1942, the artillery regiment of the mountain rifle division had a mountain pack division of 107-mm mortars of a three-battery composition (18 mortars). Since February 1945, the mountain-pack artillery regiment of the mountain rifle division consisted of three divisions, each of which had four batteries of 107-mm mortars (4 mortars in each) and a battery of 76.2-mm mountain guns (4 guns).

For the first time, 107-mm regimental mountain-pack mortars were used during border battles in the summer of 1941. The 107-mm mortar of the 1938 model of the year has established itself as a powerful firepower for accompanying infantry in mountainous combat conditions, when the mountainous terrain did not make it possible to use artillery on the same scale as on the plain. The mounted trajectory of mortars in the mountains was even more effective, since the fire from small arms, which, due to the flatness, provided a significant engaging space on flat terrain, when fired in the mountains, lost almost half of its damaging properties.Mountain-pack mortars, used in mountain military units, due to the high power of the mine, high rate of fire, range and accuracy of the battle, as well as relatively small in mass, with good maneuverability, provided effective and powerful support to mountain rifle units not only in defensive, but and in offensive operations. 107-mm mountain-pack mortars were widely used during the battle for the Caucasus in 1942-1943, as well as in offensive operations in the Carpathians in 1944-1945, earning high praise from the commanders of mountain rifle units and subunits.

The production of 107-mm mountain-pack mortars was mastered in 1939 at factories 393 “Red Arsenal” (Kiev) and “Lentekstilmash”, when 200 mortars were produced, and in 1940-1941 their number was already 1547 units. During the Great Patriotic War, the plant No. 393 “Red Arsenal” was evacuated from Kiev to Votkinsk, where the new plant, which received No. 235, produced the 1938 model of mountain-pack mortars throughout the war. In total, 2341 mortars were manufactured in 1939-1945.

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