152-mm Gun Hyacinth-b 2a36 Specifications
- Years of release -1976 – early 1990
- Total released – no data
- Caliber – 152 mm
- Weight in firing position – 9760 kg
- Barrel length – 8197 mm
- Threaded length – no data
- Calculation – 8 people
- Travel speed – up to 80 km / h
- Rate of fire – 5 – 6 rds / min
- The greatest firing range – 28,500 m (high-explosive fragmentation), 33,500 m (active-reactive)
- Shooting angles:
- Horizontal – 50 °
- Vertical – 2 ° + 57 °
152-mm Gun Hyacinth-b 2a36 Details
The development of a new 152-mm gun with an increased firing range “Hyacinth” was started to replace the 130-mm towed M-46 cannon of the 1953 model at the Special Design Bureau of the Perm Machine-Building Motovilikhinsky Plant (PMZ) under the leadership of Yu.N. Kalachnikov by order of the Ministry of Defense Industry of November 27, 1968. From the very beginning, the development of the gun was carried out in two versions – the towed “Hyacinth-B” (2A36) and the self-propelled “Hyacinth-S” (2A37). Both versions had identical ballistics and ammunition, which were specially developed for them, since there were no shots interchangeable with the Hyacinth in the Soviet army.
In April 1972, both projects of “Hyacinth” were presented at GRAU, in towed and self-propelled versions. The loading of the 2A36 “Hyacinth-B” and 2A37 “Hyacinth-S” cannons was separate-case, however, an alternative version of the 2A43 “Hyacinth-BK” cannon with caps loading was also developed. But in the final version, separate-case loading was adopted. In 1976, the 2A36 “Hyacinth-B” cannon was adopted by the Soviet army.
The “Hyacinth-B” cannon consists of a barrel with a bolt, recoil devices and a gun carriage. The gun has a monoblock barrel with a multi-chamber slotted muzzle brake. The muzzle brake is highly efficient, absorbing up to 53% of the recoil energy. The rest of the recoil energy is perceived by recoil devices – a hydraulic recoil brake (groove type) and a pneumatic knurler, mounted above the barrel and rolling away with it.The mechanism for changing the length of the rollback is designed so that at elevation angles up to 18 °, a long rollback (950 mm) occurs, at elevation angles from 18 to 45 ° – variable, and at elevation angles above 45 ° – a short rollback (730 mm). In the design of the gun, a horizontal wedge breech with a semiautomatic rolling pin is used. It provides a rate of fire of up to 6 rounds per minute. The loading process is simplified with a hydraulically driven chain rammer.The rammer is automatically brought to the ramming line at the end of the reel and automatically returns to its original position after ramming the projectile and cartridge case. The ramming is switched on manually by the control valve. The rammer’s hydraulic drive is powered by a hydropneumatic accumulator that recharges when the tool rolls back. Thus, when the first shot is fired, the bolt is opened and the ramming is done manually. On the upper machine of the carriage, two-speed lifting and turning mechanisms of the sector type are mounted. The upper machine is equipped with a pneumatic push-type balancing mechanism and a shield cover that protects the crew from bullets and fragments of artillery shells and mines. The lower carriage of the carriage is made according to a two-frame scheme with a pallet. Beds – box-type, welded.
Sights consist of a mechanical sight, a PG-1M panorama and an OP4M-90 optical sight. The undercarriage is biaxial with suspension. Wheels with pneumatic tires, two wheels are located on each side of the gun. When transferred to the firing position, the gun is lowered onto a pallet, the wheels are hung out using a hydraulic jack, which significantly increases the stability of the gun when firing and, accordingly, improves the accuracy of fire. The transfer time from traveling to combat position, and vice versa, is no more than 4 minutes. The gun is towed by a KrAZ-4556 (6×6) truck or tracked artillery tractors ATT, ATS and ATS-59, while a sufficiently high movement speed is allowed.
The cannon is fired with separate-case loading shots specially developed for it. The main ones are shots with different types of high-explosive fragmentation shells. Shooting is carried out with four variable charges for a range of up to 28.5 km. A shot with an active-rocket projectile capable of hitting a target at a distance of up to 33 km has also been developed for the cannon. In addition, the gun’s ammunition includes cumulative anti-tank and smoke rounds. Later, the ammunition load was supplemented with a cluster projectile with a firing range of 14.5 km (42 fragmentation elements weighing 1.4 kg each). It is also possible to fire an artillery projectile from the 2K25 Krasnopol guided weapon system with a laser-adjustable artillery shell. The probability of hitting an armored vehicle moving at a speed of 36 km / h is 0.7 – 0.8.
152-mm cannon 2A36 “Hyacinth-B”, possessing the maximum muzzle energy in comparison with similar weapons, is intended to suppress and destroy nuclear attack weapons, defeat control bodies, rear services, manpower and military equipment of the enemy in concentration areas and in strong points on the depth of the army’s interests, as well as for the destruction of fortifications. The 152-mm 2A36 cannon entered service with artillery brigades and divisions of army and front-line subordination. According to data for 1991, 1122 guns 2A36 “Hyacinth-B” and 2C5 “Hyacinth” were in service with the formations of the Soviet armed forces deployed to the west of the Urals. Serial production of the 2A36 “Hyacinth-B” cannon continued at the Perm Machine-Building Plant from 1976 to the early 1990s.