180-mm Railway Gun Mount Tm-1-180 Specifications
- Years of issue -1934 – 1941
- In total, 20 units were produced.
- Caliber – 180 mm
- Combat weight – 160 tons
- Barrel length – 10345 mm
- The length of the threaded part – 8267 mm
- Calculation – 40 people
- Travel speed – 45 km / h
- Rate of fire – 3.5 – 5 rds / min
- The greatest firing range – 37129 m
- Shooting angles:
- Horizontal – 360 °
- Vertical – 0 ° + 50 °
180-mm Railway Gun Mount Tm-1-180 Details
In the Soviet Union, the first projects of large-caliber artillery railway installations appeared in the late 1920s – early 1930s. In 1931, a group of specialists from the Artillery Section of the NTK UVMS began work on the creation of a 180-mm railway artillery installation capable of conducting circular shelling from any point on the railway track. These installations were intended for use in the coastal defense system and for solving a wide range of tasks in the interests of the ground forces.
Institute ANIMI in 1932 developed a technical assignment for the design of an artillery railway installation, which received the designation “TM-1-180” (marine transporter, type 1, caliber 180 mm). The development of the technical design of the railway installation was carried out by the specialists of the Design Bureau of the Leningrad Metal Plant (LMZ). At the same time, another Leningrad plant “Bolshevik” developed a 180-mm gun B-1-P 57 caliber long with a piston bolt. The first samples of the gun had a fastened barrel, which consisted of several pipes and a casing with a screwed breech. But already in 1933, after the Italian company Ansaldo mounted an autofarming unit at the Bolshevik plant, it was possible to master the production of a more advanced B-1-P gun with a lined barrel, which consisted of a pipe with a loosely inserted liner.
The gun had a Vickers-type two-stroke piston breechblock with an upward opening of the bolt frame. It was for this gun that LMZ designed the MO-1-180 coastal single-gun turret mount and the MK-3-180 three-gun turret for the famous cruiser Kirov. In 1932, the Metal Plant developed a new throw-type rammer, which was adopted for tower installations MK-3-180, MB-2-180, and it was also used in new conveyors. The very design of the 180-mm railway installation was fundamentally different from the earlier developed installations of a larger caliber – 305 and 356 mm. The rotating part in which the gun was installed
B-1-P, taken with minor changes from the coastal installation MO-1-180. In TM-1-180, the designers protected the rotating part of the artillery system with an armored cover, the transverse contour of which almost corresponded to the special railroad gauge of the rolling stock. The front part of the cover was 39 mm thick, the rest (including the roof) – 20 mm. To supply ammunition to the gun, the transporter was equipped with a projectile platform, along the perimeter of which they rolled
4 shell carts with ammunition trays. The shell platform rotated with the gun. In this case, the cellar cars were located in front and behind the conveyor, and the supply of ammunition was carried out from any of them. Roller tables with wooden rollers were located between the cars and the slug platform. Through them, shells from the carriages were fed manually onto the platform. For semi-charges, an inclined chute was installed next to the roller table. Loading was carried out at an angle of vertical guidance + 10 °, the same angle was given to the trays.
For the convenience of placing the servants when loading, the projectile platform was installed on the main beam with a slight eccentricity relative to the axis of rotation of the system. Therefore, during horizontal guidance, the platform changed its position relative to the roller tables, and it was necessary to continuously move the roller conveyor, tracking the movement of the platform. This was a serious flaw in the ammunition supply system, but with appropriate training, there were no failures or delays in firing. In order for the slug platform not to go beyond the rail gauge in width, it was divided into two parts.During the transition from the combat position to the stowed position, they turned 180 ° on the vertical axes and were located directly under the gun, which, in the stowed position, was directed to the end of the train. The design of the conveyor made it possible to conduct circular firing from any point on the railway track without preliminary engineering equipment of the firing position. A temporary position for him could be equipped at any point along the way. For this, the main beam was lowered onto special beams, which were installed on the railway sleepers.The beams were made from oak planks and tied with bolts and brackets. The transporter had eight supporting legs, which in the combat position were located in such a way that firing could be carried out at any angle of horizontal guidance. The main beam was lowered by means of two screw mechanisms located at the ends of the conveyor. Each of them was driven by two calculation numbers. The shooting was carried out on a horizontal section of the railway track along a circular sector of fire of 360 degrees by turning 200 degrees to the right and left from the middle position to the limit stops at gun elevation angles from 0 to 50 degrees.
The transfer time from the traveling position to the combat position took 60 minutes. The transporter had its own engine for moving over short distances: 3-4 minutes after the ceasefire, it had to leave its position so as not to fall under the enemy’s return fire. The transporter was provided with perfect fire control devices from closed firing positions.
Shooting from the B-1-P cannon of the TM-1-180 installation was carried out mainly by armor-piercing and high-explosive fragmentation shells of the 1928 model of the year. Charging – caps. The mass of the projectile was 97.5 kg. The powder charge provided the projectile with an initial velocity of 920 m / s, and the firing range at an elevation angle of 49 ° was 37129 m. There were also several types of semi-armor-piercing shells, high-explosive and concrete-piercing shells, as well as a remote grenade designed for firing at air targets.To ensure the secrecy of the firing of railway artillery installations, the employees of the Leningrad Scientific Research Marine Artillery Range developed flameless charges, which were prepared on the basis of conventional flame pyroxylin powder by introducing special additives. Since the shot did not give a bright flash, the enemy’s reconnaissance practically lost the ability to detect the firing installations.
Subsequently, the manufacture of railway artillery installations TM-1-180 was transferred to the Nikolaev State Plant named after Marty No. 198 (Nikolaev). In 1934 – 1935, the first four TM-1-180 units were manufactured. The production of 180-mm guns for them was mastered by the Barrikady plant (Stalingrad). In December 1934, one of the installations was tested at the Scientific Research Naval Artillery Range. In January-March 1935, the remaining three 180-mm installations were transferred there. The tests were successful, which made it possible already in 1936 to form the first battery armed with them.
In total, by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, 20 TM-1-180 units were produced. The 180-mm four-gun battery moved in two echelons, each of which had two transporters with ammunition storage facilities, wagons for personnel and material and technical property. Traction – locomotive. Basically, railway batteries were built to fight the enemy fleet. For example, three 356-mm, three 305-mm and eight 180-mm railway guns, together with stationary coastal batteries of 152-305 mm caliber, blocked the entrance to the Gulf of Finland with fire.But with the beginning of the war, it became clear that the German command did not even plan the participation of large surface ships against the USSR. Therefore, the Soviet batteries had practically no naval targets. For the first time, the TM-1-180 transporters were involved in the destruction of enemy fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus during the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940. The 180-mm TM-1-180 railway artillery mounts took an active part in the years of the Great Patriotic War.
So, during the war years, three batteries of 180-mm TM-1-180 installations operated as part of the Leningrad Front: 12th, 18th and 19th. At the very beginning of the war, the 16th battery left for the Black Sea, and the 17th was blocked on the Hanko Peninsula, and during the evacuation of the garrison, its transporters had to be disabled. In January 1942, the 12th, 18th and
The 19th battery TM-1-180, together with the 11th battery TM-1-14, were merged into the 1st separate artillery battalion. This division and six divisions of railway artillery installations of caliber 100-152 mm, in turn, made up the 101st Naval Railway Artillery Brigade – the most powerful artillery formation of the Leningrad Front. The brigade carried out the tasks of counter-battery combat against German artillery, fire support for Soviet troops, and providing sea communications between Leningrad and Kronstadt.
In 1943, the brigade’s artillery mounts took part in breaking the blockade of Leningrad. On January 22, 1944, the brigade was transformed into the 1st Guards Naval Railway Artillery Brigade for the heroism of the personnel. For the battles near Krasnoye Selo in the Leningrad region during the January 1944 offensive, it was given the honorary name “Krasnoselskaya”, and on March 22 of the same year, the brigade was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Subsequently, the brigade took an active part in the defeat of German troops on the Karelian Isthmus – the Vyborg operation, as well as in Prussia.In April 1945, she successfully operated at Konigsberg and in the defeat of German troops on the Zemland Peninsula. After the conclusion of a truce with Finland in September 1944, the installations of the 17th battery were returned to the USSR and at the beginning of 1945 they were put into service with the 1st Guards Naval Railway Artillery Brigade.
In the post-war years, the TM-1-180 installations remained in service with the Soviet army for a long time, and then they were put on storage. So, on January 1, 1984, there were 13 of them in the navy. Of these, there were eight TM-1-180 in the Black Sea Fleet, two TM-3-12 and three TM-1-180 at the Leningrad naval base.