305-mm Marine Railway Artillery Installation Tm-3-12 Specifications
- Production years -1938-1939
- Total issued-3 units.
- Caliber-305 mm
- Weight in combat position-340 tons
- Barrel length-15,850 mm
- Length of the threaded part-12 858 mm
- Calculation – 50 people
- Driving speed-45 km / h
- Rate of fire-1,8-2 vystr / min
- Maximum firing range-30,000 m
- Firing angles:
- Horizontal – 360 °
- Vertical – 1 ° + 50 °
305-mm Marine Railway Artillery Installation Tm-3-12
In October 1930, the Leningrad Metal Plant (LMZ) established the Central Shipbuilding Design Bureau (TSKBS-3), which under the leadership of AG Dukelsky began developing a series of railway transporters with large-caliber guns for coastal defense.
The design of railway installations TM-3-12 began in 1935 by the same design team, but under the new name “TSKB-19”. The technical design of the 305/52 mm TM-3-12 installation was approved in October 1936. Their production was established in Nikolaev at the plant No. 198 named after Marti and completed
January 1, 1939. TM-3-12 installations received 305/52-mm guns, raised literally from the bottom of the sea, more precisely, from the battleship Empress Maria, which was sunk in Sevastopol in 1916. All trunks are bonded. The high ballistic qualities of naval guns also had a downside – low survivability. So, the 305/52-mm gun withstood only 200 shots, and then the gun was removed from the conveyor and sent to the factory (“Bolshevik” or “Barricades”), where the inner tube was replaced, an operation that usually lasted several months.305/52-mm guns had piston bolts, horizontal, loading cap. The TM-3-12 ammunition package included armor-piercing, semi-armor-piercing, long-range and high-explosive fragmentation shells. Transporters in the stowed position could easily move along most of the railways of the USSR. The design speed of movement of the units was assumed to be 45 km / h, in addition, the TM-3-12 transporter also had a small engine for self-propelled movement at a speed of 22.5 km / h.
The TM-3-12 batteries had a three-gun composition. The battery consisted of three gun transporters, three cars – shell cellars, three cars – charging cellars, three cars – power plants, one car – a battery post and one – two locomotives of the “E” series. For railway installations at key points on the Baltic coast, special firing positions with concrete bases were built, stopping where the railway transporter turned into a classic coastal installation.
Concrete foundations were built only as part of a whole complex for one railway battery. The complex consisted of two main and two spare railway tracks, three concrete foundations staggered at a distance of 100 m from each other and a reinforced concrete permanent tower 28.6 m high to accommodate a battery post. The TM-3-12 installation was organizationally part of the railway battery (BZh-9) in the 2nd railway division of heavy artillery with a base in Mukkolovo and positions on the Kurgalsky and Kolgompa peninsulas of the Luga Bay.
During the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940, the battery shelled Vyborg, firing over 150 shells. In September 1940, the BZh-9 battery was redeployed across Finland to the Hanko Peninsula, where a naval base of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet was created. In 1941, the BZh-9 battery was commanded by Captain N.Z. Volnovsky.With artillery fire, the TM-3-12 railway installation suppressed enemy firing points located on the nearby islands and the city of Tammisaari, and also prevented the ships of the Finnish navy from targeting the peninsula. During the defensive battles, 108 firings were fired and about 570 shells were expended. Before the evacuation of the garrison from the Hanko base on December 2, 1941, the TM-3-12 installations were partially dismantled – the 305-mm barrels were blown up, recoil devices were broken, arsenals cars and most of the conveyor equipment were flooded at sea.However, between June 1942 and July 1943, the Finnish repair squad restored the damaged artillery systems. The carts were lifted out of the water, the recoil devices were restored, and new barrels were received from France from the battleship Alexander III of the same type as the Empress Maria, which was hijacked by the whites in Bizerte in 1920. However, they failed to finally put into operation the TM-3-12 installation. After the conclusion of an armistice with Finland in September 1944, the TM-3-12 installations were returned to the USSR and on January 1, 1945, they again became part of the 1st Guards Marine Railway Krasnoselskaya Red Banner Artillery Brigade, as a separate railway battery No. 294 in the city of Baltiysk , where they served until 1961.