During World War II, the effectiveness of anti-aircraft guns, especially small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery, increased markedly, the density of fire increased, and the fight against aircraft began to be carried out at night.
It is interesting to note that the highest density of anti-aircraft artillery in the defense of Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad was 8-10 times more than in the defense of Berlin and London. In total, during the years of the Great Patriotic War, our anti-aircraft artillery shot down more than 23,000 enemy aircraft. It was at this time that small-caliber anti-aircraft guns, in addition to their main task – the fight against low-flying aircraft, began to be actively used in ground battles.
Work on improving anti-aircraft guns and increasing their firepower continued in the USSR throughout the Great Patriotic War and after its end. Domestic designers during the war years worked on the creation of new artillery anti-aircraft systems with high tactical and technical characteristics. The development of a 57-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun was started in the Design Bureau of Plant No. 88 (Mytishchi, Moscow Region) in 1944. It was an anti-aircraft gun converted for a new 57-mm round with an automatic scheme from 61-K. The automation of the 57-mm anti-aircraft gun worked due to the recoil energy with a short barrel stroke. The bolt was opened during the rollback, and the shutter was closed after the barrel roll-up and the next cartridge was sent. The barrel of the gun was a free tube inserted into the casing. A high-power muzzle brake was mounted on the table. A kazennik was screwed onto the casing. The cannon had a vertical wedge gate. The machine was powered by a clip with a capacity of 5 shots. The clip was manually installed in the receiver above the receiver.The recoil brake is hydraulic, spindle type, attached from below to the neck of the cradle. The spring knurler was assembled on the trunk and was located inside the neck of the cradle. The balancing mechanism is spring, swinging, pull-up type, consisted of two columns located between the cheeks of the machine. The lifting mechanism had a gear sector. The swivel mechanism was connected with a gear rim by means of a gear. Guidance mechanism drives are manual.
In 1945, four samples of the 57-mm anti-aircraft cannon of the OKB plant number 88 were sent to the Research Anti-Aircraft Artillery Range for field tests. The rivals of the Design Bureau of Plant No. 88 were TsAKB under the leadership of V.G. Grabin and the Design Bureau of Plant No. 4, which developed their own versions of 57-mm anti-aircraft guns. GAU recognized the projects of factories No. 88 and No. 4 as unsatisfactory, and work was continued only on the 57-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun S-60 designed by V.G. Grabin, which was adopted by the Soviet army in 1950 …