76-mm Mountain Gun Technical Details
- Years of issue – 1909 – 1939
- In total, about 2060 – 2070 units were produced.
- Caliber – 76 mm
- Weight in firing position – 627 kg
- Barrel length – 1258 mm
- The length of the threaded part – 963 mm
- Calculation – 6 people
- Travel speed – 6 km / h
- Rate of fire – 10 – 12 rds / min
- The greatest firing range – 8660 m
- Direct shot range – no data
- Shooting angles:
- Horizontal – 5 °
- Vertical – 6 ° + 28 °
76-mm Mountain Gun Model 1909 Details
Special attention was paid to the development of mountain artillery in Russia, since the end of the 1890s, when the likelihood of military operations by the Russian army arose not only in the Caucasus, but also in the Carpathians, in the Pamir region and in the mountainous regions of Manchuria.
The tactical and technical requirements for a new mining tool were developed only by 1900. It was assumed that the gun will receive a new caliber – 76 mm (3 inches), to use a single projectile for the 3-inch cannon. In the same year, GAU proposed to produce samples of mountain guns that would satisfy the requirements developed by them as foreign firms “Krupp”, “Saint-Chamonon”, “Schneider”, and Russian plants – Obukhovsky and Putilovsky. The mountain guns of the French Danglis-Schneider system and the Austrian one of the Skoda company were presented for testing.During the tests, both guns showed approximately the same operational and combat characteristics. The best gun was recognized as the Danglize-Schneider system, which was adopted by the Russian army on February 26, 1909 under the designation “76-mm mountain gun of the 1909 model.” Its advantage was that it used the same unitary loading shots as the most massive artillery system of the Russian army – the 3-inch (76-mm) field gun of the 1902 model. This not only simplified the supply of ammunition to mountain artillery battalions, but also ensured a high power of fire.In addition, at a low initial velocity of the projectile (381 m / s) during firing from the cannon, a rather steep trajectory was achieved on the ascending and descending branches. It was this trajectory that was necessary when operating in the mountains, to defeat the enemy’s manpower, hiding on the opposite slopes of the mountains.
The 1909 mountain cannon was designed to destroy enemy manpower, destroy artificial obstacles and light shelters, suppress and destroy enemy fire weapons, and to combat enemy motorized weapons and artillery.
The weapon was intended for operations in the mountains, on very rugged and difficult terrain; it was transported by towing on wheels coupled to the front end, or disassembled in horse packs. The design of the gun ensured its quick disassembly into component parts for 7 packs and quick assembly. The gun had a lightweight single-bar carriage with wooden wheels, the lifting and turning mechanisms of which made it possible to fire with vertical firing angles from -6 ° to + 28 °.
The aiming of the gun in the horizontal plane was carried out within 5 °.
In the design of the gun, a collapsible barrel was used, consisting of a threaded pipe fastened with a casing and a ring, and covering the casing and fastening ring of a coupling with a piston bolt. The shutter is piston. The clutch was mounted on a skid of a single-bar carriage with unsprung wheel travel, which could be disassembled into five parts for transporting a pack: the frontal part of the machine, the trunk of the machine, the combat axle with wheels, a cradle with a slide and a shield. The axis of the carriage is cranked, pivoting, has two fixed positions: low (it is also transport) and high, which allows you to give the barrel a greater elevation angle.
Anti-rollback devices are mounted in the carriage slide, consisting of a hydraulic rollback brake and a hydropneumatic knurler. The lifting mechanism of the tool – a sector type, is located on the left frame of the frontal part of the machine, and the shaft with the flywheel of the rotary mechanism drive was also withdrawn from the vessel. The gun could be used with sighting devices of the 1909 model, the 1913 model, or the sighting devices from the 76-mm regimental cannon of the 1927 model with cutting marks on the sight drum for the mountain gun.
Due to the specifics of using this weapon in the mountains to eliminate the influence of the tilt of the axle of the pins, its sight was equipped with a transverse level and a worm drive for mounting the sight in a vertical plane. The shield cover consisted of three curved steel sheets. The gun ammunition included 76-mm unitary shots: with a high-explosive fragmentation long-range grenade; with a high-explosive grenade; with bullet shrapnel, and long-range smoke and incendiary rounds. The gun was transported both by towing and transportation in packs (weighing from 100 to 240 kg) by horse-drawn traction.
The main disadvantage of the cannon as a mountain weapon was that it was of little use for transportation in packs, whose mass reached 240 kg, which was two to three times higher than the real capabilities of pack horses, therefore, during hostilities, mountain guns were towed on wheels, and across the steep mountain passes, the crews dragged them on their hands.
The first contract for the production of 76-mm mountain guns of the 1909 model was concluded with the Putilov plant in 1909. In 1910, the St. Petersburg gun factory was also connected to their production. The total number of mountain guns manufactured in Russia before the revolution is estimated at 1254 units. They were actively used during the First World War.
The 76-mm mountain guns of the 1909 model entered service with the Red Army during the Civil War. In the 1920s, the production of mountain guns of the 1909 model continued at the Petrograd plant, evacuated to the village of Podlipki, Moscow Region, and soon received its new name “Plant No. 8 im. Kalinin “. Subsequently, the production of these guns was also established at factories # 92 (Gorky) and # 172 (Perm).
From 1924 to 1939, the Red Army received 756 mountain guns of the 1909 model. Thus, the total production is approximately 2060 – 2070 units.
The 76-mm mountain guns of the 1909 model were in the pre-war period for artillery regiments of the mountain rifle divisions of the Red Army. Each regiment had three divisions with a three-battery composition: two batteries of 107-mm mountain mortars and a battery of 76-mm mountain guns. During the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940, 80 76-mm mountain guns of the 1909 model took part in the hostilities with the Finns. By June 22, 1941, the Red Army was armed with 1121 mountain cannons of the 1909 model. During the Great Patriotic War, they took the most active part in hostilities. The war found mountain rifle divisions on the southern flank of the Soviet-German front, where most of them were destroyed along with weapons. The mountain rifle brigades that were subsequently formed instead included a division of mountain guns (12 units).