AM-38 Aircraft Engine Technical Details
- Working volume-46.66 liters
- Compression ratio-6,8
- Power-1500 hp
- Weight-860 kg
- Length-1950 mm
- Height-810 mm
- Cylinder diameter-196.8 mm
- Take-off power – 1600 hp
AM-38 Aircraft Engine Details
Aviation V-shaped 12-cylinder water-cooled four-stroke piston engine, manufactured in 1941. The AM-38 engine was installed on Il-2 attack aircraft. The AM-38 aircraft engine was found on battlefields in the Murmansk region and donated to the museum by an employee of the search association, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, V. B. Legkobyt.
Aircraft engines of the A.D. Shvetsov Design Bureau
In the mid-1930s, an experimental design bureau was established at the new engine-building plant No. 19 in Molotov (Perm), under the leadership of A.D. Shvetsov. Shortly before that, in 1932-1933, he was the chief engineer of the Moscow Engine-Building Plant No. 24 named after him. Frunze A.D. Shvetsov was sent to the United States to purchase a license for the production in the USSR of the Wright Cyclone SGR-1820 F-3 aircraft engine with a capacity of 625 hp, the production of which was to be mastered by Ural plant No. 19. At the beginning of 1934, A.D. Shvetsov was appointed chief designer of plant No. 19. Soon this talented designer fully showed his talent. At the plant, the Design Bureau of A.D. Shvetsov was commissioned, which was entrusted with the creation of modifications of the M-25. If the first aircraft engines produced in Perm under the designation “M-25” were similar to the American ones (only in metric, not inch versions), then in 1935-1936 their upgraded versions – the M – 25A and M-25B engines (with take-off power of 720 and 775 hp, respectively, and a height of 2500 and 2900 m) – went into large-scale production. These engines have become the most reliable and high-resource in the Red Army Air Force. Moreover, these engines were continuously improved, and in 1937-1938 the production of their even more powerful models was mastered – M-62 and M-63 (with a take-off capacity of 1000 and 1100 hp and a height of 4200 and 4500 m, respectively), equipped with two-speed drive centrifugal superchargers. They were installed on the I-15, I-16 and I-153 fighters.
In 1940, the M-62 IR engine was created for transport and civil aviation, which was installed on PS-35, Li-2 and some other transport aircraft. The M-62 IR engine was produced during the Great Patriotic War at plant No. 19 (Perm). It belongs to the number of” long-livers ” of Shvetsov-under the brand name ASH-62 IR, this engine is still used on AN-2 aircraft. In wartime, the M-62 IR engine in its technical characteristics was practically not inferior to the best foreign engines of a similar purpose.
By the end of the 1930s, it became obvious that the M-62 and M-63 engines had virtually exhausted the possibilities of developing the 9-cylinder single-row Zvezda. Therefore, starting from 1939-1940, the Design Bureau of A.D. Shvetsov initiated intensive work on creating more powerful two-row aircraft engines of three main types. A.D. Shvetsov, connecting two cylinder blocks from the M-63 with a new gearbox and a two-speed drive centrifugal supercharger, received an 18-cylinder M-71 engine. The M-81 and M-82 14-cylinder engines were also more compact and better suited for fighters.
Leading designer I. P. Evich worked on the creation of a completely new M-82 engine. This small-sized engine was a 14-cylinder double-row “star-shaped” engine with the same cylinder diameter as all previous engines, but with a piston stroke shortened to 155.5 mm. This made it possible to significantly reduce the overall diameter of the motor – up to 1260 mm instead of 1375 mm for its predecessors. The extended nose of the crankcase made it possible to ensure good cowling of the engine when it was installed on an airplane and, thus, reduce the aerodynamic drag of the propulsion system. The M-82 passed state tests as early as 1940 and could have been launched into a series relatively easily, since its introduction was not accompanied by a radical alteration of the technological equipment of production. Pistons; piston rings; cylinder liners; valves; fingers; as well as the main seats of the crankshaft, connecting rods, valve timing parts had the same dimensions as those of the serial M-62 and M-63 engines. Therefore, in parallel with the implementation of a set of state tests, the installation series of the M-82A engine was put into production. At the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War, it was put on the first series of Tupolev Tu-2 and Sukhoi Su-2 bombers. However, the high technical characteristics of the new M-82A air-cooled engine, with a power of 1,400 hp, were the main reason that they tried to install it on the MiG-3, Yak-1 and LaGG-3 fighters. The most successful version of the LaGG-3 fighter, called La-5, turned out to be the most successful. During the war, this fighter earned the recognition of Soviet pilots who appreciated its combat qualities. In addition, along with the La-5 fighters, this engine began to be mounted on Tu-2 bombers, whose production was established at the final stage of the war. The M-82A engine turned out to be very successful, reliable, easy to operate and very tenacious. At the front, cases of Lavochkin fighters returning from combat missions with bullet and shrapnel holes in their cylinders were repeatedly recorded, and the M-82 engine continued to remain operational for a long time, which in most cases was enough to safely exit the battle and return to the airfield or to its territory. On combat aircraft that had water-cooled engines, any hole in the cylinder block led to an almost immediate engine failure, with all the ensuing consequences.
In December 1942, the modified M-82F engine, created in the Design Bureau of A.D. Shvetsov, went into mass production, which differed from the M-82 mainly by its unlimited take-off time. This feature of the engine was crucial for the combat operation of the fighter: up to an altitude of approximately 1500-1600 m, the M-82F engine received an additional 200-300 hp of power in combat conditions. To ensure the forced mode in the M-82F engine, it was necessary to improve a number of components, including improving the cooling and lubrication system. According to its technical characteristics, the M-82 surpassed the best samples of foreign engines of that time. In 1943, an even more advanced version was put into production – the forced M-82FN engine, which received an injection fuel supply system to the cylinders (“direct injection”) instead of the carburetor, while its take-off power was increased to 1,850 hp. This was achieved by: increasing the fins of the cylinder heads (by 27%); installing new exhaust valves with an increased rod diameter; increasing the cross-section of the suction pipes; strengthening the pistons; improvements in the design of the drive to the drive centrifugal supercharger.
Despite the fact that the M-82FN was almost completely redesigned and significantly reinforced, its weight increased by only 30 kg. Aircraft engines M-82, M-82F and M-82FN were produced in two versions each: with a gearbox with a gear ratio of 9: 16-for bombersSu-2, Pe-8, Tu-2 and with the number 11: 16-for the La-5, La-5FN, La-7, La-9 and La-11 fighters. From April 1, 1944, all engines of the A.D. Shvetsov Design Bureau received the designation “ASH” after the initials of the chief designer, so the M – 82 aircraft engine was soon renamed “ASH-82”.
In terms of the number of serial engines, the engines of the A.D. Shvetsov Design Bureau are second only
to the V. Ya. Klimov Design Bureau. In total, more than 75,000 engines were manufactured, including:
– before 1941-M-25; M-25A; M-25B; M-62; M-63-more than 17,000;
– in 1941-1945-M-62IR; M-82; M-82F; ASH-82FN-more than 33,000;
– after the war-ASH-62IR; ASH-83; ASH-82T; ASH-73TK;ASH-21-about 25,000 more.
The Air Force exposition of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War exhibits motors designed by A.D. Shvetsov: