Messerschmitt Bf 109f-2 Fighter Aircraft Technical Details
- Crew – 1 person
- Engine-Daimler-Benz DV 601N
- Power-1200 hp
- Wingspan-9.9 m
- The wing area is 16.2 sq. m
- Empty aircraft weight – 2355 kg
- Maximum take-off weight-3120 kg
- Maximum speed at altitude / near the ground – 600 / 515 km / h
- Practical ceiling – 12,000 m
- Maximum range-845 km
- Armament: 1×15-mm machine gun MG 151/15; 2×7. 92-mm machine gun MG 17.
Messerschmitt Bf 109f-2 Fighter Aircraft Details
Of the many types of combat aircraft that took part in World War II, the German Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter occupies its own special place. He received a baptism of fire in the skies of Spain, being the main fighter of the Luftwaffe, and in various modifications went through the Second World War, up to 1945. Easy to operate, fast to maneuver, formidable in attack, simple and technologically advanced in production Messerschmitt Bf 109 is considered one of the best fighters of the Second World War.
The design of this aircraft began in 1934, when the German Air Force Command announced a competition to create a single-seat fighter to replace the outdated biplane fighters Heinkel Ne 51 and Arado Ar 68. The chief designer of the aviation company Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG R. Bauer under the leadership of Willy Messerschmitt tried to combine a minimal size and weight design and a powerful engine. The result of this work was the creation of a single-seat all-metal monoplane with a closed cabin and a retractable landing gear.
The Bf 109 fighter was developed on the basis of a small sports monoplane, so the wing load was high and it had to be equipped with slotted flaps and automatic slats. Good flight qualities, ease of operation and technological design led to the success of this machine.
The design of the Bf 109 fully corresponded to the trend that had emerged by the mid-1930s – the transition from biplane fighters with an air-cooled engine to monoplanes with a water-cooled engine. In the front part of the relatively long and narrow metal fuselage, the Jumo 210A engine was initially installed, soon replaced by the Daimler-Benz DV-600 engine, and on the latest modifications – DV-601 or DV-605, while the power of the aircraft’s power plant during its mass production increased from 610 to 1475 hp., and when using the GM-1 or MW-50 engine boost systems, the maximum power could reach 1800 – 2000 hp, while the maximum speed of the aircraft increased from 420 km/h to 685 km/h.
Located in the middle part of the fuselage, the pilot’s cabin was covered by a lantern consisting of a visor, the middle part that reclined to starboard, and the part behind the cabin. The high-quality transparent plastic glazing provided the pilot with a good view in all directions. The pilot’s cabin was equipped with the necessary navigation devices and instruments for monitoring the operation of the aircraft’s systems. As a rule, an oxygen device was installed on the aircraft, and a radio station was located in the tail part of the fuselage. The latest modifications also used the aviation identification radio station FuG-25A, which was a transceiver that received signals from a ground VHF radio station and automatically sent a conditional response signal. Under the pilot’s seat and behind the cockpit were two metal fuel tanks with a total capacity of 400 liters. On some versions, it was possible to place an additional fuel tank under the fuselage. The aircraft had a low-lying trapezoidal wing with a metal working skin, which was extremely light in weight. Cleaning of the chassis was carried out using a hydraulic drive, the wheels were equipped with hydraulic brakes. The plane was stable and controlled in all flight modes. A very important circumstance was that the piloting technique was simple and accessible for pilots of average and below average qualifications.
In September 1935, the Bf 109 made its first flight, and in 1936 it entered service with the Luftwaffe. The first production Vf 109B-1 (“Bruno”) vehicles left the assembly line in February 1937, and were received by the Luftwaffe fighter squadron JG 132. Air battles in the skies of Spain with Soviet fighters, which were conducted by 40 aircraft of the first serial modifications of the Bf 109 B-1 and B-2 from the German Condor legion, showed the need to increase the power of its engine and strengthen weapons. Therefore, two more wing-mounted 7.92 mm machine guns (model Bf 109 C-1) were soon added to the two synchronous 7.92 mm MG 17 machine guns installed above the engine (modified Bf 109B). At the beginning of 1939, another version appeared – the Messerschmitt Bf 109E-1 with a Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine with a capacity of 1050 hp. This aircraft developed a speed of 550 km / h, and along with machine guns had a cannon armament-two 20-mm MG FF guns. In the variant of the Bf 109 E-1/B fighter-bomber, it could carry four 50 kg bombs or one 250 kg bomb. It was with this fighter that the German Air Force entered World War II. A modification of the Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3, which developed speeds of up to 570 km / h, in 1940 was widely used in battles with French and British aircraft. Between 1940 and 1941, 4,000 Bf 109E aircraft were produced.
Due to its high flight and tactical characteristics, the Bf 109E modification was in production without significant changes during the first two years of World War II, and only from 1941 began to be replaced by more advanced modifications of the F, G and K.
In 1941, the Luftwaffe adopted the new Messerschmitt Bf 109F-one of the best in its aerobatic and maneuverable characteristics of its modifications. In total, up to 2,200 of these vehicles were produced in several versions, so-Messerschmitt Bf 109F received a new 12-cylinder V-shaped DB 601N liquid-cooled engine with a take-off capacity of 1200 l/s. The aircraft model Bf 109F-1 was armed with one 20-mm gun MG FF/M (rate of fire-520 rounds / min) and two 7.92-mm machine guns MG 17; and on the fighter model Bf 109F-2 instead of MG FF / M mounted more rapid-fire 15-mm air gun MG 151/15. The Bf 109F-3 was equipped with a more powerful DB 601E engine (1350 hp), and the Bf 109 F-4 model received a 20-mm MG 151 / 20 air gun, additional armor protection and protected fuel tanks. However, with the improvement of the propulsion system and armament, the main changes in the Messerschmitt Bf 109F were more concerned with the airframe, which received a new appearance, preserved until the end of the war with more advanced aerodynamics: an improved shape of the engine hood; an increased size of the propeller cock. In this model, the radiators were strongly “sunk” into the wing; the wing tips became rounded; the length of the slats and the span of the ailerons decreased; the struts of the horizontal tail disappeared; the landing gear geometry was modified, and the tail wheel was half retracted into the fuselage. As a result, the speed of this car increased from 570 to 630 km/h.
On June 22, 1941, 60% of all German Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters belonged to this modification. The upgraded Bf 109F fighter significantly outperformed Soviet fighters in terms of flight characteristics. In an effort to maintain air superiority, the Luftwaffe command in the summer of 1942 for the first time used a new upgraded Bf 109G fighter with an increased power engine near Stalingrad (a total of 14122 aircraft of this modification were produced). In 1943, the Bf 109G-6 model was reinforced with 7.92 mm MG machine guns. 17 was replaced by 13-mm large-caliber MGS.131. In addition, on many vehicles under the wing, two additional suspended containers with 20-mm MG 151/20 guns were installed. On individual aircraft of the G-6 series, the MG. 151 gun, which fired through the propeller sleeve, was replaced by a more powerful 30-mm MK.108 air gun. Moreover, depending on the installed equipment and weapons, each modification had several options and sub-options. So, for example, the G modification existed in 12 main variants and in more than 30 sub-variants, designed, for example,to perform the tasks of a fighter-bomber or photo reconnaissance. Aircraft conversion was carried out with the help of two so-called “conversion kits”. With the help of kits of the first type, aircraft were converted in the factory, and kits of the second type were intended for conversion in the field by aircraft repair units. It is necessary to note the specifics of the use of German fighters. On the Soviet-German front, they had to participate in air battles, usually at altitudes up to 4500 m. Against Allied bomber aircraft, they conducted attacks at high altitudes. To create an engine capable of developing maximum power both near the ground and at high altitude, it turned out to be so difficult that German designers had to compromise. The Daimler-Benz DB 605 engine on the Bf 109G provided the aircraft with a maximum flight speed at an altitude of about 7000 m. To increase the engine’s altitude, a GM-1 nitrous oxide fuel system was installed on the aircraft. For a short-term increase in engine power at low altitudes, the MW-50 water-jet boost system was additionally installed on many vehicles.
The introduction of these two systems improved take-off and speed characteristics in flight, but due to the increased weight of the engine, weapons and increased armor, the maneuvering characteristics of the Bf 109G deteriorated. And if the Bf 109G became very dangerous for enemy bombers, then in a maneuverable confrontation, the advantage was on the side of the Soviet Yaks, Lavochkins and English Spitfires.
The release in 1944-1945 of more high-speed Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters of the K model, which included all the successful improvements of previous versions, in general, did not change the nature of combat operations in the air, since the armed forces of the countries participating in the anti-Hitler coalition also had improved fighter aircraft La-7, Yak-3, Yak-9U, Spitfire XIV, P-51 Mustang. Of the 14,000 Bf109 fighters produced in 1944, the new BF109K model accounted for only 754 copies. During the last months of the war in 1945, the Luftwaffe received another 2,970 Bf109 fighters, of which more than half were G models and the rest were K models.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 became one of the most popular fighters of the Second World War. In total, 30,573 Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters were produced in Germany in 1937 – 1945 in 23 main modifications.
The museum’s exposition presents a mock-up of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-2 fighter V. Brandl, commander of the 2nd group of the 3rd Udet Squadron from the 3rd Air Fleet (which won 180 victories), which was stationed near Smolensk in the summer of 1941.
The mock-up of the aircraft was built by RPC “Antares” with the participation of AOOT “Tushinsky Mashinostroitelny Zavod” under the leadership of “VDA” LLP.