Mig-21pfs Fighter Aircraft Technical Specifications
- Crew – 1 person
- Engine – R-11-F2S-300
- Thrust – 6120 kgf
- Wingspan-7,154 m
- Wing area – 23.0 sq. m
- Empty aircraft weight – 5450 kg
- Maximum take-off weight-7820 kg
- Maximum speed at altitude / near the ground – 2175 / 1300 km / h
- Practical ceiling – 19,000 m
- Maximum flight range-1670 km
- Armament: 1×23-mm gun GSH-23 in a container GP-9; 4 guided missiles RS-2-US (K-5M) or X-66
- The maximum bomb load is 1300 kg of aerial bombs.
Mig-21pfs Fighter Aircraft
The MiG-21 is the most outstanding Russian fighter of the second generation, which had no equal in the air battles of the 1960s and 1970s. These aircraft, simple and reliable in piloting and operation, for a long time formed the basis of the fighter aviation of the USSR and its allies, remaining until the beginning of the 1990s the most common fighters in the world. The successful combat use of the MiG-21 in numerous armed conflicts encouraged aviation companies in the United States and Western Europe to constantly work on improving the performance of their fighters, “pulling” them up to the MiG level.
OKB-155 Mikoyan already in 1953 began work on the creation of a light supersonic front-line fighter-interceptor, designed to combat high-altitude supersonic bombers and tactical enemy fighters. When designing the new aircraft, we proceeded from the basic condition that the successor of the MiG-19 aircraft should exceed it in speed, ceiling, maneuverability, armament and at the same time have a small take-off weight, ease of manufacture and maintenance. When creating this aircraft, the experience of combat use of fighter aircraft (in particular, MiG-15 aircraft) in Korea was widely used.
In order to choose the shape of the wing in the plan (swept or triangular), experimental programs were simultaneously worked out in two directions: on creation of planes with a swept wing – E-2 and E-2A and with a triangular one-E-4, E-5 and E.
On February 14, 1955, an experimental aircraft of the A. I. Mikoyan Design Bureau E-2 with a 55° sweep wing made its first flight, which reached a speed of 1920 km / h during flight tests, and on June 16, another experimental fighter E-4 took off, equipped with a triangular wing with a 57° sweep, the maximum speed of which was only 1296 km/h, and the practical ceiling – 16,400 m.. In the course of comparative tests of several prototypes of aircraft with swept (E-2A, E-50, E-50A) and triangular (E-5, E-6/1, E-6/2 and E-6/3) wings, preference was given to the latter.
In 1958, tests revealed good flight qualities of the prototype E-6 aircraft, when this fighter with a triangular wing first reached a speed of 1970 km / h. Its practical ceiling was 17,650 m. Already at the stage of flight tests, this aircraft officially received the official name “MiG-21”.
Developing the technical achievements used on the MiG-19, the MiG-21 fighter managed to reach a speed of 2175 km/h. The MiG-21F (E-6) turned out to be very successful, and without waiting for the decision of the state commission, the Moscow Machine-Building Plant No. 30 “Znamya Truda” and the Gorky Aircraft Factory No. 21 began preparing for mass production of this fighter. In 1959, serial production of the MiG-21 single-seat fighter was mastered.
The MiG-21 was a medium-sized fighter aircraft designed according to an aerodynamic scheme with a triangular low-lying wing and swept tail. The fuselage was a semi-monocoque, elliptical section. In the front part of the fuselage, an air intake was mounted with a central adjustable three-position cone, in which the radar was mounted (on aircraft of early modifications – a radio range finder). At a speed of up to M=1.5-the cone was removed inside the air intake; at a speed of M=1.5 and up to M=1.9, the cone moved forward to the middle position, and at speeds above M=1.9, it moved as far forward as possible. Three brake pads were installed on the fuselage: two in the front and one in the rear, below. At the bottom of the rear fuselage was a ventral ridge, with the front part made of radio-transparent material covering the antenna.
The pilot’s cabin is air-tight and ventilated. The cockpit light on aircraft of early modifications (MiG-21F and MiG-21F-13) was opened by lifting up using hydraulic cylinders. The main glazing was made of 10 mm bulletproof plexiglass ST-1. Directly in front of the glass of the moving part, an armored screen (a three-layer triplex with a thickness of 62 mm) was mounted, protecting the pilot in front from bullets and shrapnel. The lantern on the MiG-21 PFM aircraft and its subsequent modifications received a simplified design with a smaller glazing area. Its folding part was made of heat-resistant glass with a thickness of 10 mm, and the lantern was opened manually to the right. On the first production MiG-21F and F-13 aircraft, an ejection seat with a blind device was installed. In the future, the MiG-21F-13 and PF fighters were equipped with a “SK” seat, which provides protection of the pilot from the air flow using a flashlight (ejection was provided at speeds up to 1100 km/h from a minimum height of 110 m). However, due to insufficient reliability, the SK chair was soon replaced by the KM-1 ejection seat, which has a traditional design. The triangular wing of the MiG-21 aircraft had a sweep angle of 57°, and a small aerodynamic ridge was mounted on the upper surface of the console. The keel had a sweep of 60°, radio equipment was placed in its tip, and on-board radio-electronic equipment was mounted in the middle part. The landing gear of the aircraft is three-legged, retractable. The power plant of various modifications of the MiG-21 fighter consisted of a R-11 turbojet engine of various modifications, and it was possible to install rocket launch boosters. MiG-21 aircraft of early modifications did not have an autopilot, later they were equipped with autopilots KAP-1, KAP-2 or AP-155, and the latest modifications of MiG-21 fighters received an automated control system SAU-23ESN, which was a combination of an electronic computing device with command indicators and an autopilot that fulfills these commands. The MiG-21F-13 fighter was equipped with an automatic rifle scope ASP-5ND, coupled with a radio range finder SRD-5MK “Kvant”, mounted in the nose cone, and an optical infrared reticle SIV-52. Its equipment consisted of: the RSIU-5 HF receiving and transmitting radio station; the ARK-10 automatic radio compass; the RV-U low-altitude radio altimeter and other instruments and devices.
Later versions of the fighter were equipped with various types of radio sights, including the RP – 22S, with a maximum detection range of air targets – up to 30 km and a maximum tracking range – up to 15 km at altitudes from 1000 to 20000 m. The MiG-21F fighter was armed with two 30-mm HP-30 guns; the MiG-21F-13 aircraft was armed with one HP-30 gun mounted in the fuselage on the right, and two K – 13 (R-3s) air-to-air guided missiles. Instead of missiles under the wing, it was possible to suspend two UB-16-57U units (each of which had 16 unguided 57-mm S – 5M/S-5K air-to-ground missiles or two unguided 240 – mm S-24 air-to-ground missiles, or two 50 kg air bombs or two ZB-360 incendiary tanks. The MiG-21PF and MiG-21FL aircraft were equipped only with missile weapons, while the MiG-21 PFM and MiG-21S fighters received a GP-9 suspended container with a 23-mm GSH-23 air gun. On all subsequent modifications of the fighter, built-in 23-mm GSH-23L guns were mounted. The number of underwing suspension units has increased to four. Missile armament on MiG-21 aircraft of subsequent modifications: (in various combinations): guided air – to-air missiles R-13M; R-3c; R-3r; R-55; R-60; R-60M, as well as (on parts of aircraft) R-2L (beam-guided), RS-2US (K – 5) and X-66 (air-to-ground) missiles. MiG-21s could also carry aerial bombs of various types of caliber up to 500 kg (maximum payload weight – up to 1300 kg). Some of the MiG-21SN and MiG-21bis aircraft were equipped with equipment for suspending tactical nuclear bombs. In addition, it was possible to hang containers with photographic equipment and radio intelligence equipment.
Given the fact that the early versions of the MiG-21F and MiG-21F-13 could only fight during daylight hours in good weather conditions, to achieve the all-weather characteristics of this fighter, it was necessary to equip it with an on-board radar capable of detecting and tracking air targets. Starting with the MiG-21P aircraft, all fighters of this type were equipped with the CD-30T radio target and Lazur command guidance equipment, which allowed the aircraft to interact with the Air-1 automated fighter control system. However, the use of more powerful weapons and avionics led to an increase in the take-off weight of the fighter. This, as well as the requirements of the military, which required aircraft capable of operating from unpaved airfields, led to the creation in 1963 of a new model of the MiG-21PFS aircraft, equipped with a boundary layer deflation system (SPS) from the flap. Under this system, the engines were modified, called R-11-F2S-300, with air extraction from the compressor. In the released position, air extracted from the compressor was fed to the lower surfaces of the flaps, which made it possible to dramatically improve the take-off and landing characteristics of the aircraft. The use of the ATP made it possible to reduce the run length to an average of 480 m, and the landing speed to 240 km/h. Two SPD-99 launch boosters could be installed on the aircraft to reduce the take-off length. All these innovations were installed on all subsequent modifications of the MiG-21.
The MiG-21 continues to be the most massive supersonic fighter in the world by the number of aircraft built. The MiG-21 entered service not only in the USSR, but also in 49 other countries in Europe, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America. Its high flight characteristics allowed this aircraft to effectively solve a wide range of combat tasks. The MiG-21 took part in almost all armed conflicts in the late twentieth century, including its widespread use during the Vietnam War. The main enemy in this war for the MiG-21 of various modifications were the American McDonnell Douglas F-4 “Phantom” fighters. During the fighting from 1966 to 1972, the DRV Air Force, having lost 54 MiG-21 aircraft, destroyed 103 “Phantoms” of the US Air Force and Navy in air battles. In the Soviet Union, a very large number of variants of the MiG-21 were created (more than 45 serial and experimental modifications). It was produced in the following main versions::
– MiG-21F-front-line fighter, produced at Gorky Aircraft Factory No. 21 and Moscow Machine-building Plant (MMZ) No. 30 “Znamya Truda” in 1959-1960;
– MiG-21F-13-front-line fighter, mass-produced in Gorky in 1960-1962, and at MMZ No. 30 “Znamya Truda” in 1962-1965;
– MiG-21U, MiG-21UTI, MiG-21US, MiG-21UM-two-seat training variants of the front-line fighter, produced at the aircraft factory No. 31 in Tbilisi: MiG-21U-in 1962-1966; MiG-21US – in 1966-1970; MiG-21UM-in 1971. In addition, the MiG-21U aircraft was produced at MMZ No. 30 “Znamya Truda” in 1964-1968;
– MiG-21PF-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1962-1964 in Gorky and in 1964-1968 in Moscow;
– MiG-21PFM, MiG-21PFS-front-line all-weather fighters, produced in 1964-1965 in Gorky and in 1966-1968 in Moscow at the Znamya Truda plant;
– MiG-21S-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1965-1968 in Gorky;
– MiG-21SN-a front-line all-weather fighter capable of carrying a tactical RN-25 atomic bomb on the central (ventral) pylon (later-and other types), was produced in 1968-1974 in Gorky;
– MiG-21SM-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1968-1971 by plant No. 21 in Gorky;
– MiG-21MF-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1969-1974 at the MMZ “Znamya Truda” and in 1975-1976 at the plant number 21 in Gorky;
– MiG-21MT-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1971 at MMZ No. 30 “Znamya Truda”;
– MiG-21SMT-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1971-1973 in Gorky;
– MiG-21bis-frontline all-weather fighter, produced in 1972-1985 at the aircraft factory No. 21 in Gorky;
– MiG-21R-tactical reconnaissance aircraft, produced in 1965-1971 in Gorky.
In total, a total of 10158 MiG-21s of various modifications were built at three aircraft factories during 28 years (from 1959 to 1987): at MMZ No. 30 “Znamya Truda” – 3203 aircraft; in Gorky – 5278 aircraft and in Tbilisi-1677 (of which 17 fighters, the rest are training aircraft). By the mid-1990s, the MiG-21 was still the most mass-produced fighter in the world.