MiG-29 Fighter Aircraft Technical Specifications
- Crew – 1 person
- Thrust – 2×8300 kgf
- Wingspan-11.36 m
- Wing area – 38.10 sq. m
- Empty aircraft weight – 10,900 kg
- Maximum take-off weight-18,480 kg
- Maximum speed at altitude / near the ground – 2450 / 1500 km / h
- Practical ceiling – 18,000 m
- Maximum flight range-2900 km
- Armament: 1×30-mm gun GSH-301; 2 guided missiles R-27R; 6 guided missiles R-60M, R-73; 4 blocks of unguided missiles S-8 or 2-4 unguided missiles S-24B
The maximum combat load is 3000 kg of aerial bombs.
MiG-29 Fighter Aircraft Details
In the late 1960s, the Ministry of Defense of the USSR formulated, taking into account the experience of combat use of fighter aircraft in Vietnam and the Middle East, tactical and technical requirements for a promising front-line fighter. They included: better maneuverability provided by new aerodynamic and layout solutions; a long range; the possibility of using short runways (including the use of poorly prepared strips); speed over 2 M; the use of fundamentally new on-board electronic equipment (in particular, a digital weapons control system) and advanced aviation weapons. In 1969, a competition was announced for the development of a promising front-line fighter. Sukhoi and Yakovlev design bureaus, as well as the Mikoyan Design Bureau, took part in the competition. However, in 1972, the Air Force leadership, based on the research conducted, clarified the requirements for promising fighters: they were supposed to include light front-line fighters-simple and mass-produced aircraft designed to fight enemy aircraft over their territory and over the front line, as well as heavy multi-purpose aircraft capable of operating over enemy territory. The Sukhoi Design Bureau was engaged in the creation of a heavy fighter, and the development of a light fighter was transferred to the Mikoyan Design Bureau.
On July 15, 1974, the final layout of the MiG-29A front-line fighter (product “9-11”) with two RD-33 twin – circuit turbojet engines was approved. The MiG-29 was the first fundamentally new machine that was created under the leadership of General designer R. A. Belyakov (after the death of one of the creators of the MiG Design Bureau, A. I. Mikoyan, in 1970). It was created as an aircraft for gaining air superiority in a given combat area. The main task of the MiG-29 was to fight enemy aircraft; cover rear objects and troop concentrations from the air; counteract enemy aerial reconnaissance at any time of the day, even in difficult weather conditions. In addition to hitting enemy air targets at short and medium distances, including against the background of the ground, the aircraft was to be used for strikes on land and sea targets, both mobile and stationary. Estimates showed that in terms of combat effectiveness, the new Soviet fighter, armed with R-73 missiles, would surpass the American F-15A by 1.4 times and F-16A by 1.5 times in close maneuverable air combat, and in counter-long-range missile combat using K-27 MiG-29 guided missiles, it would have some superiority over the F-15 in the entire altitude and speed range. The first flight of the prototype was made on October 6, 1977.
After the completion of a large-scale test program in 1982, the MiG-29 front-line fighter model “9-12” was put into mass production, and in August 1983 it was adopted by the Soviet Air Force to replace the MiG-21 and MiG-23. Serial production of the MiG-29 was launched in 1982 at the Moscow Machine-building Plant No. 30 “Znamya Truda” (Tushinsky Machine-building Plant), and MiG-29UB combat training aircraft in Gorky at aircraft factory No. 30.
In many respects, the MiG-29 was superior to the main foreign opponents-the Mirage 2000, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters. Excellent aerodynamics, high thrust-to-weight ratio gave the Soviet fighter a good acceleration and rate of climb, small turn radii, high angular turn speeds, and the ability to perform long maneuvers with heavy overloads. The aircraft could effectively conduct a fairly active maneuvering battle using all-angle missiles, as well as an automatic gun, and intercept reconnaissance and strike aircraft. Rational aerodynamic layout of the aircraft; high thrust-to-weight ratio; reliable automatic control system provided this aircraft with very high maneuverability characteristics.
The MiG-29 fighter was a monoplane made according to an integrated aerodynamic scheme (i.e., the wing and fuselage were a single whole) with a smooth interface of the low-lying wing and fuselage, which gave increased (approximately twice as much as the previous generation fighters) load-bearing properties; with two spaced engines installed in the tail and a two-keel vertical tail. The airframe was made mainly of aluminum alloys and steel. Titanium alloys and composite materials were used in the wing spars, tail section of the fuselage and a number of other elements. The wing of the aircraft had developed root inflows that provide high load-bearing properties at high angles of attack, and a sweep along the leading edge – 42°, which allowed the MiG-29 to have good take-off and landing characteristics, maneuverability and controllability at subsonic speeds, including at high angles of attack. The fuselage is a semi – monocoque type, with flat side walls in the area of the pilot’s cabin and a sharp decrease in the cross-sectional area behind the cabin. Between the engine nozzles were located brake pads and the container of the brake parachute, which was used to reduce the length of the run.
The K-36 DM ejection seat was mounted on the MiG-29, which provided an exit from the aircraft from zero altitude and at zero speed, i.e. when moving on the ground. The vertical tail unit (keels) was reinforced at an external angle of 6° on two beams that serve as extensions of the engine nacelles. Automatic cassettes for ejecting heat traps and dipole reflectors were installed in the ridges in front of the keels. Since 1984, all aircraft have been equipped with rudders that have an enlarged chord and protrude beyond the trailing edge of the keels. Stabilizer – all-turn differentially deflected. The chassis is tricycle. The power plant consisted of two RD-33 turbojet engines with a thrust of 5040 kgf (8340 kgf afterburner) each. For the first time, these engines gave the fighter aircraft a thrust-to-weight ratio of more than one and high maneuverability characteristics in a wide range of altitudes and flight speeds. On the MiG-29, air intakes of engines operating in two modes were used. To ensure stable operation of the power plant in all flight modes, the air intakes had movable panels that allowed using an automatic control system to change the flow section of the channels depending on the flight conditions. The new vehicle had a number of unique features that made it a formidable weapon, including the presence of an integrated automatic weapon control system SAU-451, as well as automatic control systems AGC-29-2 and control trim effect. Also on the plane were installed: navigation system CH-29; automatic radio compass ARK-19; VHF-connected radio station R-862, etc. For the first time in the world, this aircraft used a fire control system that uses three target detection and tracking circuits: the pulse-Doppler radar sighting system RLPK-29 (NO-19 “Saphir-29”) with a digital computer of the Ts100 series (providing tracking of up to 10 targets on the passage and detecting targets against the ground with targets exceeding by 13 km or lowering by 6.5 km), coupled with the optoelectronic sighting and navigation complex OEPR-29 (consisting of a laser optical-KOLS location station and heat channel), which allowed to determine the coordinates of the target with high accuracy and track it day and night, as well as a thermal locator associated with a laser rangefinder. All systems connected via the on-board computer Ts100. 02-02 with the helmet-mounted sighting sight of the pilot “Schel-3UM” could work both separately and together. Moreover, helmet-mounted targeting provided tracking of the pilot’s head movements by the system: following the turn of the pilot’s head in the same direction, the homing heads of weapons of destruction were synchronously deployed. The information was displayed as symbols on a special helmet-mounted reflector. The on-board radar was capable of detecting fighter-type targets (including on the ground) at a range of 60 km and in the rear hemisphere-at a range of 35 km and simultaneously tracking up to 10 targets. On the modification of the MiG-29S fighter, the SUV-29M armament control system was installed with an improved RLPK-29M (NO-19M) with a digital computer of the TS101M series (in which the terrain mapping mode was added and the capabilities for action against ground and surface targets were increased). In it, the detection range of air targets increased to 75 km in the front hemisphere and 40 km in the rear hemisphere. The MiG-29 had the equipment of the E502-20 Biryuza command radio control line, which provides interaction with ground-based automated guidance systems, and was also equipped with the SPO-15LM Bereza radar warning station with an all-round view. On the MiG-29, a generalized onboard control and warning system for the crew “Ekran-OZME” was installed, warning the pilot about the danger of an attack from behind. The MiG-29 fighter’s armament included a single-barreled 30-mm GSH-301 air gun mounted in the left wing influx.
To combat air targets, six MiG-29 underwing units were equipped with: six R – 60M or R-73 short-range guided missiles with infrared homing heads; four R-77 short-range guided missiles (RVV-AE) and two medium-range R-27R with radar or R-27T with IR guidance system. It was also possible to install X-25M medium-range guided air-to-ground missiles with passive radar, semi-active laser and radio command guidance. Unguided weapons for actions on ground targets were: blocks of unguided S-8 aircraft missiles or two or four unguided S-24B aircraft missiles; 250 and 500 kg air bombs on four external suspension units-with a total weight of up to 3000 kg; up to four unified containers of small cargo KMG-U and other aviation weapons.
The MiG-29 for the USSR Air Force was produced in the following main modifications::
– MiG-29 (9-12) – single-seat front-line fighter, the first serial modification of the MiG-29;
– MiG-29 (9-13) – single-seat front-line fighter. It differed from the 9-12 modification in the presence of a built-in active radar jamming station “Gardenia”, which provides protection of the aircraft in the rear hemisphere, as well as the ability to suspend two underwing outboard fuel tanks. A set of design improvements introduced during mass production, allowed to improve the characteristics of stability and controllability of the fighter. The combat load of the 9-13 model increased from 2000 to 3000 kg compared to the 9-12 model, KMG-U small cargo containers were included in the armament, and the number of simultaneously suspended 500 kg bombs increased from four to six. The 9-13 fighter was launched into mass production in 1986.;
– MiG-29S (9-13S) / SD/ – further development of the 9-13 model, which included the R-77 missile(RVV-AE) in the range of weapons; the radar station now has a simultaneous attack mode for two air targets, as well as the ability to refuel in the air to increase the flight range;
– MiG-29SM / SMT (9-17; 9-18; 9-19) – upgraded versions of the MiG-29S, with the possibility of using high-precision air-to-ground weapons;
– MiG-29M-a deeply upgraded version of the MiG-29 with an increased flight range, increased combat load and an expanded range of onboard weapons, which received new more powerful RD-33K engines and a new on-board multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar “Zhuk”, which allowed detecting targets up to 100 km and increasing the number of operating modes. The first flight took place in 1986;
– The MiG-29UB (9-51) is a two-seat combat training fighter designed for training and training flight personnel in piloting, intercepting air targets and fighting ground targets in the altitude and flight speed range of the MiG-29 combat aircraft. Its main difference from a combat aircraft is the absence of onboard RLPC and R-27 guided missiles.;
– MiG-29UBT (9-52) – a two-seat modification of the MiG-29UB combat training fighter, designed to perform combat missions at low altitudes;
– MiG-29K (9-31; 9-41 – – single-seat multi-purpose all-weather deck (ship) fighter-bomber with improved equipment and more powerful RD-33K engines. The wing in the middle of the span has a folding node, while its area has increased from 38 to 42 square meters. m. Established in 1988;
– MiG-29 KUB (9-47) – two-seat deck-based combat training fighter;
– MiG-35 (9-61) – deep modernization of the MiG-29M aircraft.
By the beginning of 1993, more than 1,500 MiG-29 aircraft of various modifications had been built: more than 1,200 single-seat fighters manufactured by the Moscow Machine-Building Plant No. 30 “Znamya Truda” and more than 200 MiG-29UB combat training aircraft manufactured by the Gorky Aircraft Factory No. 21 “Sokol”. Serial production of the MiG-29 aircraft continues, new modifications are being developed, and work is underway to modernize it, so that the MiG-29 will still be able to break the records of the long-lived MiG-15 and MiG-21 aircraft and will be effectively operated at least in the first third of the XXI century.
The Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War exhibits the MiG-29-the standard of the production aircraft type 9-13, factory number 1616 (tail number 26). At the end of 1986, after performing 98 flights, this machine was delivered to the Moscow Machine-Building Plant named after A. N. Mikoyan for improvements and equipping the KZ, after which it was tested to determine the stability and handling characteristics with outboard fuel tanks and an upgraded control system. A total of 488 MiG-29 flights were completed. The aircraft was handed over to the museum in 1994.