Su-15tm Fighter Interceptor Aircraft Technical Specifications
- Crew – 1 person
- Engine – R-13F-300
- Thrust – 2×6600 kgf
- Wingspan-9.34 m
- The wing area is 36.6 sq. m
- Empty aircraft weight – 10,760 kg
- Maximum take-off weight-17,900 kg
- Maximum speed at altitude / near the ground – 2230 / 1300 km / h
- Practical ceiling-18,100 m
- Maximum flight range-1380 km
- Armament: 2 R-98M guided missiles; 2-4 R-60 guided missiles; 2 UPK-23-250 hanging containers with 23 mm GSH-23L cannons; 2 UB-16-57 units with S-5 unguided missiles or 2-4 S-24B unguided missiles
- Combat load-1500 kg, including 2×250 kg FAB-250 bombs (instead of outboard fuel tanks).
Su-15tm Fighter Interceptor Aircraft Details
Russian military aviation at the turn of the 1950s and 1960s was unable to solve the problem of destroying strategic bombers and reconnaissance aircraft at altitudes of more than 20,000 m, which was more than clearly confirmed by attempts to intercept a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft F. Powers U-2 of the United States Air Force on May 1, 1960 by the Air Defense Fighter Aircraft. It was then that the Air Defense Forces faced a very acute task – to prevent possible flights of high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and strategic aircraft of a potential enemy. For air defense, an aircraft was required that could, while reaching an altitude of 18 000 – 19 000 For example, to launch air – to-air missiles at targets significantly higher than the interceptor fighter in height. Such an aircraft was the Su-15-the first high-altitude fighter-interceptor in the USSR, which provides interception and destruction of targets at altitudes above 23,000 m.
In terms of its flight characteristics, the Su-15 was not an outstanding machine. Nevertheless, it was the first domestic aircraft that could shoot high enough above itself (up to seven kilometers) air – to-air missiles, both with a thermal homing head and with a radar one. In addition, the Su-15 had two engines, and their reliability was much higher than that of previous generations of aircraft. The range and flight time also differed favorably from previous interceptors. All this made it possible to solve rather large-scale tasks of maneuvering aircraft and concentrating efforts on threatened areas.
Development of a new fighter-interceptor at the Sukhoi Design Bureau began in the spring of 1960, as part of the modernization of the original Su-11 (T-47) interceptor, equipped with an AL-7F-2 engine, using the groundwork for the recently curtailed T-3M (T-37) fighter-interceptor program. The new project received the designation “Su-15” and the working code “T-58”. It was supposed to replace the Su-9 and Su-11 fighters. The Su-15 was designed to intercept air targets with a speed range of 500-2000 km / h and altitudes of 500-24000 meters. Modernization provided for giving the new aircraft the ability to intercept targets in a wider range of altitudes and flight speeds, including on opposite courses (in the forward hemisphere of the target). In addition, the possibility of automating all the main stages of interception was considered, for which an automatic control system was supposed to be installed on the aircraft. The original layout of the T-58 compared to the T-47 has undergone a significant transformation – to accommodate a more powerful radar in the nose, instead of a nose air intake with a conical central body, the new fighter was installed side flat adjustable air intakes with a vertical braking wedge. In the future, due to the requirements for improving the reliability of the aircraft, the designers switched from a single-engine version to a scheme with two R-11F-300 engines. As a result, the Su-15 acquired the finished look of a classic supersonic fighter of the 2nd generation of jet aircraft.
Construction of the prototype aircraft was completed in early 1962, and the prototype T58D-1 interceptor made its first flight on May 30 of the same year. State tests of the aircraft took place from August 1963 to June 1964, and, unlike the previously tested Su-9 and Su-11, the new fighter-interceptor had almost no serious comments. According to the test results, the most significant drawback was only a short flight range, so to eliminate this remark, the Su-15 increased its fuel reserve. We also improved the design of the fuselage-straightened its contours in the area of interface with the wing. On April 30, 1965, the aircraft was adopted by the Air Defense fighter aviation as part of the Su-15-98 interception complex, which included: the Su-15 (T-58) carrier aircraft; the weapons system consisting of the RP-15 (Orel-D58) radar station and the R – 98 air-to – air missile, as well as the Air-1 ground-based automated guidance system. The Su-15-98 air intercept system was capable of intercepting air targets flying at speeds of up to 2000 km / h in the front hemisphere and 1600 km / h in the rear hemisphere in the altitude range of 1000-23000 m.
The Su-15 single-seat supersonic fighter-interceptor was an all-metal mid-plane and was designed according to a normal aerodynamic scheme with a low-lying triangular wing and swept tail. The fuselage is a semi-monocoque of variable cross-section, flanked by adjustable rectangular air intakes with a vertical braking wedge, which ensured engine operation. In the bow there was a radar station, the antenna of which was covered with a conical radio-transparent fairing.
Four brake pads were located in the tail section, and under the keel there was a container with a brake landing parachute, which was used to shorten the flight length of the aircraft. The cabin is single – seat (on the Su-15UT and Su-15UM training aircraft-double), sealed. The cabin light consisted of a visor with a silicate glass armor block and a sliding part with heat-resistant plexiglass glazing. The wing of the Su-15 is triangular in plan, had a variable sweep angle along the leading edge of 60°, and, starting with the 11-series aircraft, an “influx” appeared on the wing with a sweep on the leading edge of 45°. In addition, the wing had aerodynamic crests of small height. The tail unit consisted of a keel with a rudder and a steerable all-turn stabilizer. Landing gear-tricycle with a nose support.
Su-15 fighters of various modifications were equipped with two turbojet engines, initially-R-11F2S-300, later R-11F2SU-300 (with a maximum thrust in forced mode-6200 kgf each), modified to take air into the boundary layer blowing system from the flaps. Soon they were replaced by new R-13F-300 engines (with a maximum thrust in forced mode-6600 kgf each). The fuel system included three fuel tanks in the fuselage and two tank compartments in the wing. In addition, two outboard fuel tanks could be suspended under the fuselage. The pilot’s life support system consisted of an air conditioning system and an oxygen supply system. When flying at altitudes of up to 10 km and speeds of up to 900 km/h, the pilot’s standard equipment was a KM-32 oxygen mask, a ZSH-3 protective helmet,and a VK-3 or VK-4 ventilated coverall. When flying at supersonic speeds, the pilot wore a high-altitude compensating suit VKK-4, VKK-6 or VKK-6P, a GSH-4MS, GSH-6M or GSH-4MP helmet.
The emergency escape system with the KC-4 ejection seat developed at the Sukhoi Design Bureau ensured safe escape of the aircraft in the entire altitude range from 0 meters and flight speeds, including take-off and run at speeds above 140-150 km/h. The Su-15 aircraft of the first series did not have an autopilot, later they were equipped with an automated control system SAU-58, which provided complete (without the participation of the pilot) automation of the flight process for intercepting air targets (up to missile launch) according to the commands of the Air-1 ground guidance system with the Lazur data transmission line. Flight and navigation equipment provided aircraft navigation day and night, in simple and difficult weather conditions. It consisted of: course system of the KSI-5 type; connected VHF radio station RSIU-5 (R-802); radar systems for blind landing RSP-6; on-board equipment of the Lazur radio line (ARL-S) of the Air-1 integrated guidance system and the Sirena-2 warning station. The capabilities of the Su-15 weapon system were also quite large. It was equipped with a powerful radar sight RP-15 “Orel-D58”, “Orel-D58M “or” Orel-D58PA ” with a parabolic antenna, which made it possible to detect and capture targets at long ranges. On the upgraded Su-15TM, an even more powerful Typhoon-M radar was mounted, with a range of detecting a bomber-type target when flying at high altitude – 65 km, and at low altitude-15 km. The target capture range was 45 km and 10 km, respectively. In fact, for the first time in air defense fighter aircraft, air combat could now take place without eye contact with the enemy aircraft.
The Su-15 fighter’s armament included two medium – range air – to-air guided missiles in two variants – one R-98R with a semi – active radar homing head and the second R – 98T with a passive thermal homing head (maximum launch range of up to 20 km), as well as two or four R-60 short-range air-to-air guided missiles with an IR homing system. The launch of missiles was possible both one at a time and in one salvo. Under the fuselage, instead of outboard fuel tanks, two UPK-23-250 containers with 23-mm GSH-23L double-barreled guns could be suspended, which significantly increased the firepower of the Su-15 to combat air and ground targets. In exceptional cases, the suspension of two FAB-250 bombs was allowed.
Serial production of Su-15 fighters was carried out from 1966 to 1970 at the V. P. Chkalov plant No. 153 (Novosibirsk). Over the years, 422 Su-15 aircraft were assembled. At the same plant in 1969, in parallel with the single-seat Su-15, serial production of the two-seat training version of the Su-15UT was mastered, which lasted until the end of 1971. Work on improving the Su-15 was constantly ongoing. Already in the process of mass production, to improve the take-off and landing characteristics of the Su-15, the UPS system is being introduced – blowing off the boundary layer on the flap, and since the late 1960s, the Sukhoi Design Bureau has begun work on a radical modernization of the Su-15 in order to improve its combat characteristics, and first of all, to increase the range of detection and To do this, a new Typhoon radar was installed on the aircraft instead of the Smerch radar and the missile armament was upgraded. The new modification received the designation Su-15T (factory code T-58T). In 1969-1970, a small series of 20 Su-15T fighter-interceptors with an onboard Typhoon radar was produced. In 1970, an improved version of the Typhoon-M radar appeared, which was mounted on the most advanced modification of the Su-15TM interceptor fighter. New powerful R-13F-300 turbojet engines were installed on this aircraft. In addition, the Su-15TM received a completely new Lazur onboard equipment that works with the Air-1M ground guidance system, which made it possible to direct the fighter at the target in manual, semi-automatic and automatic control modes, providing interception of single air targets from the rear hemisphere in the altitude range from 500 to 24,000 m, flying at speeds up to 1600 km / h, and from the front hemisphere-at altitudes from 2000 to 21,000 m, flying at speeds up to 2500 km/h. Additionally, at the request of the military, it provided for the possibility of using weapons against ground targets (aerial bombs, NURS and gun containers). On January 21, 1975, the Su-15TM as part of the upgraded Su-15-98M intercept system was adopted by the air defense aviation.
Serial production of the Su-15TM was carried out at the Novosibirsk plant from 1971 to 1976. A total of 450 Su-15TM aircraft were produced. During the serial production of the Su-15TM,its equipment and armament were also repeatedly modified and upgraded. From the 6th series on the Su-15TM, the automatic control system SAU-58-2 appeared, which made it possible to intercept low-altitude targets, and from the 8th series-the nose conical radio-transparent fairing of the on-board radar antenna was replaced with an oval-shaped fairing. This made it possible to eliminate interference on the on-board radar screen caused by false reflection of the signal from the inner surface of the conical fairing, but at the same time reduced the practical ceiling of the aircraft to 18,100 meters.
Since 1979, the Su-15TM aircraft began to be equipped with additional underwing pylons with R-60 guided melee missiles (the aircraft could take on board two or four missiles of this type). Soon, the R – 98 air-to – air missiles were replaced by more advanced ones-the R – 98M, also available in two versions-with semi-active and infrared homing heads. The R-98M missile was capable of hitting bomber-type targets at a maximum range of up to 24 km in the altitude range from 500 to 23,000 meters with a probability of 0.6 – 0.8 with a two-rocket salvo. The Su-15TM fighter-interceptor has remained one of the main fighters of the country’s air defense aviation for many years. In 1976, the air defense forces began to receive a new Su-15UM training fighter based on the Su-15TM, armed with four heat-seeking missiles (2hR-98M and 2hR-60) and two UPK-23-250 containers, but did not have an on-board radar. Serial production of the Su-15UM was carried out in Novosibirsk from 1976 to 1981 inclusive. In total, about 1,400 Su-15s of all modifications were manufactured during mass production.
Compared to other aircraft that were in service with the Soviet Air Force and air defense aviation, the Su-15 represented a qualitative leap in the development of air defense aviation. Therefore, the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR and the Air Defense Forces attached great importance to this aircraft. It was supposed to become a standard fighter-interceptor and replace outdated aircraft of several types in the air defense system. Development of the new fighter aircraft began at the Red Banner Aviation Training Center of the Air Defense Forces, based in the village. Savostleika (Gorky region). The parent regiment was the 594th fighter training Regiment of this Center, whose personnel began studying the Su-15 in January 1967.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Su-15 fighter – interceptors formed the basis of aviation of the USSR Air Defense Forces, being the most massive modern aviation interception complexes. By the mid-1970s, Su-15 aircraft were in service with 29 fighter regiments, which accounted for more than a third of all combat air units of the air defense forces. Su-15 aircraft made a large number of interceptions of foreign aircraft that violated the airspace of the USSR. The first such intercept on the Su-15 was performed in 1970, when on the night of September 11-12, a pilot of the 62nd Fighter Aviation Regiment landed a Greek Douglas DC-3 aircraft at his airfield. The most famous was the combat use of the Su-15 on the night of September 1, 1983, when in the Far East, the pilot of the 777th Fighter Aviation Regiment, Major G. N. Osipovich, intercepted and shot down a South Korean passenger plane-a Boeing 747, which violated the USSR border over Kamchatka and Sakhalin, flying on the Anchorage – Seoul flight. Less well-known was another combat episode, when a successful air ram was performed on the Su-15. On July 18, 1981, a CL-44 transport plane violated the Soviet border in Transcaucasia from Iran. It was intercepted by a pair of Su-15s from the 166th Fighter Aviation Regiment, one of which was piloted by Captain V. A. Kulyapin. In the conditions of a time shortage caused by the threat of an intruder going abroad, on command from the ground, Kulyapin rammed the intruder plane, after which he safely ejected himself. For this feat, the pilot was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
Su-15/Su-15TM aircraft were in service with the Air Defense Forces and the USSR Air Force until 1991, and as part of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation – until 1994.