Su-22UM3K Fighter Aircraft Technical Specifications
- Crew – 1 person
- Thrust – 1×11 200 kgf
- Wingspan-13.68 m (30°) / 10.025 m (60°)
- Wing area – 38.49 sq. m (30°) / 38.45 sq. m (60°)
- Empty aircraft weight-11 550 kg
- Maximum take-off weight-19,630 kg
- Maximum speed at altitude / near the ground – 1850 / 1350 km / h
- Practical ceiling – 14,000 m
- Maximum flight range – 2300 km
- Armament: 2×23-mm HP-30 guns; 2 X-23, X-25, X-29, X-58, K-13, R-60, R-73 guided missiles; 2 – 4 SPPU-22-01 suspended containers with 23-mm GSH-23 guns; 2 – 4 UB-16-57, UB-32-57 units with S-5 unguided missiles; 2 – 4 B8M1 units with S-8 unguided missiles, 2 B-13 units with S-8 unguided missiles. – 13 or 2-4 unguided missiles S-24,S-25
- Combat load – 4250 kg, including bombs of 100, 250 and 500 kg; single bomb cassettes RBC-250 and RBC-500; containers of small-sized cargo of KSMu, KSMU-2.
Su-22UM3K Fighter Aircraft Details
In the mid-1960s, shortly after the Soviet Air Force adopted the Su-7B fighter-bomber, which was well-developed in mass production and mastered operation, work was launched to create its improved versions of the Su-7BKL and Su-7BMK, and at the same time the Sukhoi Design Bureau began work on improving the take-off and landing characteristics of this machine. The Design Bureau was working simultaneously on the T-58VD aircraft with a short takeoff and landing, and the S-22I aircraft with a variable sweep wing. The design of a new modification of the Su-7 was initiated in May 1965. The most promising design scheme was recognized as a wing with a variable sweep, which allowed not only to leave the fuselage, tail and landing gear unchanged, but also to solve the problem of maintaining the stability of the aircraft.
The prototype S-22I was designed on the basis of the serial Su-7: the nose part of the fuselage and landing gear was taken from the Su-7BM, and the tail part was taken from the Su – 7BKL, using a completely new variable sweep wing, the outer sections of which were made rotary. The wing consoles consisted of a fixed part docked to the fuselage and a movable part pivotally joined to it. The location of the turn node was chosen based on the condition that the attachment points of the main chassis supports were kept in the same place, which significantly simplified the design development. This approach made it possible to minimize changes in the design of the airframe, and the implementation of the rotary – not the entire wing, but only its parts-to minimize the displacement of the centers of pressure and gravity when changing the sweep of the wing. The control system for changing the sweep consisted of a drive for turning the consoles and a device for synchronizing them, and for greater reliability, a smooth change in the sweep was provided using two hydraulic motors operating from two independent hydraulic systems. The first Soviet aircraft with a variable sweep wing, the S-22I, made its first flight on August 2, 1966. At the end of 1967, based on the results of factory flight tests, it was decided to launch the aircraft in a series. Serial production of the fighter-bomber with variable wing geometry under the designation “Su-17” began in 1969/1970 at the Far Eastern Machine-building Plant No. 126 (Komsomolsk-on-Amur).
The Su-17 aircraft was a medium-sized plane made according to a normal aerodynamic scheme with a variable sweep wing and an all-rotating vertical tail. Its wing consisted of a fixed part and rotary consoles capable of changing the sweep. The minimum wing sweep angle, which provides good take-off and landing characteristics, was 30°, and the maximum (the same as that of the Su-7B) was 63°. The fuselage is semi-monocoque. In its nose part there was an air intake with an adjustable central cone. The air duct was divided into two parts and went around the pilot’s cabin. In the rear part of the fuselage there was a container with a brake parachute and four brake pads. The cockpit lantern opened back-up, the fixed part of the glazing was three – section, with a flat frontal armored glass, a periscope of the rear hemisphere was mounted in its upper part. The pilot’s cabin had partial booking, which consisted of front and side aluminum plates 18 mm thick. The chassis is tricycle. The Su-17 of the first series was equipped with an AL-7F-1 turbojet engine with a maximum thrust in forced mode of 9600 kgf (later replaced by a more powerful AL-21FZ with a maximum thrust of 11,200 kgf). The aircraft’s fuel system consisted of five fuselage fuel tanks and wing caisson tanks. In addition, two more outboard fuel tanks could be suspended under the fuselage of the Su-17 aircraft. The Su-17 was initially equipped with the KC4-S32 ejection seat, which was later replaced by the upgraded K-36DM seat, which provides the ability to leave the aircraft at all altitudes (including when running and running at speeds of more than 140 km/h). The Su-17 aircraft used constantly improved avionics, in particular, the fighter-bomber received the PNK-54 flight navigation system; the R-862 radio station, the Sirena-3 radiation warning station; the RSBN-5S short-range navigation and landing radio system; antenna-feeder system “Pion”; automatic control system ACS-22-M1 (providing automatic flight from takeoff to landing with a minimum flight altitude of 60 m); as well as built-in equipment radio command line guidance guided missile X-23 (system “Delta-H”, and then – “Delta-NM”). A monochrome television monitor was mounted in the cockpit, allowing the use of guided air-to-air missiles and corrected aerial bombs with television guidance. On the plane were installed: optical sight ASP-17; radio range finder SPD-5M; the sight is a bomb-throwing computer with a PBK-2 cabriolet, and on the ventral pylon it was possible to hang a container with reconnaissance equipment or a BA-58 module with equipment for detecting enemy radars and targeting X-58 or X-25MP anti-radar guided missiles.
The Su-17’s artillery armament consisted of two 30-mm HP-30 aviation cannons mounted in fixed parts of the wing near the fuselage. Two additional external suspension units were also installed on the fixed part of the wing, which made it possible to bring their total number to six. The maximum mass of the combat load on the external suspension units was 2500 kg (later it was increased to 4250 kg). Guided missile armament included the X – 25ML and X-29L laser-guided air-to-ground missiles; the X-29T television-guided missile; and the X-25MR radio-guided missile; anti-radar missiles X-58 and X-25MP, as well as air – to-air missiles with thermal homing heads R-60 or R-60M. The aircraft could be equipped with UB-32 units for 57-mm unguided S-5 aircraft missiles of various modifications; B-8M1 units for 80-mm S-8A and S-8M missiles; B-13 units for 122-mm S-13 missiles; and S-24 and S-25 aircraft missiles. The Su-17’s bomb armament included high-explosive, high-explosive fragmentation, and incendiary bombs of 100, 250, and 500 kg caliber; ODLP-500P volume-detonating bombs; and KAB-500L adjustable aerial bombs.; single bomb cartridges RBC-250 and RBC-500; containers of small-sized cargo of KSMu, KSMU-2. In addition, Su-17M4 fighter-bombers could also be equipped with two or four SPPU-22-01 containers with 23-mm GSH-23 double-barreled cannons. The Su-17 aircraft was capable of carrying tactical nuclear bombs RN-40 with a capacity of 30 kilotons.
In 1970-1971, the first serial modification of the fighter-bomber was madeshika Su-17 (95 pieces). However, in the course of mass production, this aircraft was constantly improved, and already in 1971 it was replaced by the Su-17M (S-32M), equipped with a powerful and economical AL-21F3 engine. In this model of the aircraft, to improve its longitudinal stability at high angles of attack, additional aerodynamic ridges were mounted on the fixed part of the wing: from the bottom – at the trailing edge, and on the upper surface – at the leading edge – opposite each other. An increase in the fuel system capacity, the use of a new engine and improved aerodynamics of the Su-17M provided an increase in the flight range by 2/3 compared to the Su-17 aircraft. In parallel with the Su-17M, its export modification was also created – the Su-20, which was equipped with a power plant, avionics and weapons with lower tactical and technical characteristics. In 1975-1977, the following modification of the Su-17M2 fighter-bomber was launched into production, which received: a new set of on-board sighting and aerobatic equipment and weapons, including: sights-optical ASP-17 and bomber PBK-3-17s; laser rangefinder “Background”; radio-technical system of short-range navigation and landing RSBN-6S and navigation complex KN-23, which provides automatic access to the target area along a programmed route. The Su-17M2’s armament included X – 25L and X-29L air-to-ground guided missiles with laser semi-active guidance; anti-radar missiles X-28, as well as air-to – air missiles of close air combat-R-60.
On February 3, 1976, the Su-17M2 fighter-bomber was adopted by the Soviet Air Force. The export version of the Su-17M2 received the designation Su-22 (S32MK). And already in the same year, two new models of this fighter-bomber appear – the single-seat Su-17M3 (S-52) with a completely redesigned nose of the fuselage, which received a downward angle of 6° (relative to the longitudinal axis) and a unified two-seat combat training version – the Su-17UM (S52U). As part of the avionics of the Su-17M3 aircraft, the Klen – PS laser station was included, which performed the tasks of a rangefinder and a target illumination system.; the new combined bombing and firing sight ASP-17B, as well as the SPO-15 (“Birch-L”) radar warning station. This aircraft also received an upgraded SAU-22M1 automatic control system and a KDS-23 IR trap unit located in gargrot. The composition of weapons did not differ from the Su-17M2.
Part of the Su-17M3 fighter-bombers were equipped with containers with the “Blizzard” system, which provides the use of X-28 missiles, and later X-25P, specialized for defeating the control systems of military air defense systems of a potential enemy. In the Su-17UM aircraft, the equipment complex remained similar to the S32M2, but the armament complex was significantly reduced. So, the left Hp-30 gun was dismantled at Spark, and only the X-25 and R-60 guided missiles remained in the guided weapons complex. Serial production of the Su-17M3 and Su-17UM aircraft was carried out in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 1976-1981 and 1976-1977, respectively. In 1978, to unify the Sparky avionics with the Su-17M3 equipment, the production of a modernized combat training aircraft, the Su-17UM3 (S – 52UM3), was mastered, equipped with a new set of sighting and aerobatic equipment. And in 1979-1980, all Su-17UM combat training aircraft were modified at the Air Force aircraft repair enterprises on the model of the Su-17UM3. Since 1978, the production of their export modifications was mastered – the Su-22M3 (S52M3K) and Su-22U (S52UK), equipped with the R-29BS-300 engine instead of the AL-21F-3, and in 1982 – 1983 – another model – the Su-22UM3 (S-52UM3K). However, already in the same year, 1983, a decision was made allowing the supply of Soviet AL-21F-3 turbojet engines for export, which made it possible to unify the power plant on all modifications of the Su-17/Su-22 aircraft. As a result, the export version of the Sparky, which was produced since 1984, received the designation “Su-22UM3K”, practically did not differ from the Su-17UM3, intended for the Soviet Air Force.
Production of this aircraft by plant No. 126 continued until 1990. In 1980, the last modification of the Su-17M4 fighter-bomber appeared in Komsomolsk-on-Amur with an unregulated air intake and new on-board radio-electronic equipment, as well as the PrNK-54 digital sighting and navigation system (which included: a laser range finder-target designator “Maple”; an inertial navigation system; a BTSVM; a television cabin indicator and other equipment). In addition, the composition of guided weapons was significantly expanded, at the expense of guided missiles with television guidance – X-29T. Production of the Su-17M4 was carried out since 1981, and continued intermittently until 1988, and in parallel with it, the export version of the aircraft was also produced – the Su-22M4 (S54K) with the AL-21F-3 engine (from 1983 to 1990), which was widely delivered abroad.
The 523rd Aviation Regiment of fighter-bombers of the Far Eastern Military District became the first Russian combat unit to receive Su-17 aircraft in October 1970. Nine years later, in January 1980, Su-17 and Su-17M fighter-bombers from the 217th Aviation Fighter-Bomber Regiment became the first strike aircraft of the Soviet Air Force stationed in Afghanistan in Shindand. As early as March 1980, they took part in combat operations, launching bombing and missile strikes against rebel groups. At the first stage of combat operations, Su-17s used unguided S-5 aircraft missiles, which hit weakly protected open targets, as well as more powerful S-24 missiles, to destroy fortified objects.
Since 1981, Soviet fighter-bomber regiments have replaced each other in the DRA on a regular basis. During the Afghan war, Su-17M3 and Su-17M4 aircraft were widely used, as well as their reconnaissance modifications Su-17M3-R and Su-17M4-R with KKR-1 containers in various configurations, which conducted aerial photography in day and night conditions, as well as carried out IR and radio reconnaissance (identifying enemy radio stations). In 1981, the scale of hostilities increased even more. Instead of the insufficiently powerful NAR S-5, Su-17 fighter-bombers began to use more effective S-8 missiles more widely, capable of hitting targets from a zone beyond the reach of enemy anti-aircraft machine guns.
Su-17 aircraft began to be actively involved in creating rubble in the mountains, on the enemy’s caravan trails (for this purpose, the FAB-250 or FAB-500 salvo drop was used), as well as for “free hunting” for caravans (in this case, the aircraft were usually equipped with two UB-32 or B-8M units, two RBC or four NAR S-24). Su-17 aircraft during combat operations in Afghanistan have shown quite high efficiency and survivability. Based on combat experience, a number of improvements were made to the design of the Su-17M3 and Su-17M4 aircraft, which increased their combat survivability. So, to strengthen the protection of the engine in the lower part of the fuselage, an additional armor plate was installed, to protect against enemy MANPADS, containers of ASO-2V IR traps (with 32 LO-56 trap cartridges in each) were mounted on the fuselage, which were fired automatically at specified intervals.
Since 1984, Su-17 fighter-bombers have been widely using the latest weapons-volume-detonating ammunition, as well as laser-guided guided bombs and X-25L and X-29L guided missiles. At the final stage of the war, in 1988, Su-17 aircraft were used, equipped with a modified radio system for long-range navigation, which provided automatic flight to the target at high altitude and bombing areas. The Su-17M4 fighter-bomber was in service with the Russian Air Force in the second half of the 1990s and was widely used by federal forces during the first Chechen War. The last Su-17M4S were withdrawn from the Russian Air Force in 1998.
Serial production of the Su-17 aircraft lasted from 1970 to 1990. During this time, the Far Eastern Machine-Building Plant No. 126 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur produced 2,781 different versions of the Su-17/Su-20/Su-22, of which 1,866 Su – 17 and 915 were produced in export versions of the Su-20/Su-22 (according to other sources – 2,867, 1,702 and 1,165 aircraft, respectively).